An interdisciplinary campaign, Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape (SPECIAL), was undertaken to understand the patterns and processes of fluxes. SPECIAL is aimed at describing the variability in and drivers of fluxes from leaf to landscape scales across a large section of the 1,000-km-long North Australian Tropical Transect (NATT) in northern Australia, where mean annual rainfall decreases from 1,700 mm in the north to 350 mm in the south. Savannas contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling, including exchanges of carbon dioxide, nitrogenous compounds, methane, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other trace gases, with a globally significant efflux arising from frequent savanna burning. Savannas are also important because of their large spatial extent and relatively high productivity compared to other global biomes. The SPECIAL campaign was focused on the spatial variability in fluxes between the sites rather than temporal variability.