Brachytherapy (BT), a type of focal anti-cancer radiotherapy, delivers a highly focused radiation dose to localized tumors, sparing surrounding normal tissues. Recent technological advances have helped to increase the accuracy of BT and, thus, improve BT-based cancer treatment. Stereotactic ablative brachytherapy (SABT) was designed to improve the ablative effect of radiation, which was achieved via improved image guidance, and calculation of ablative dose, shorter treatment duration, and better organ preservation. Recently collected data characterized SABT as having the potential to cure various early-stage cancers. The method provides higher tumor control rate levels that were previously achievable only by surgical resection. Notably, SABT is suitable for application with unresectable malignancies. However, the pathological assessment of SABT irradiated tumors is limited due to difficulties in specimen acquisition. Prostate, lung, liver, and gynecological cancers are the most commonly reported SABT-treated malignancies. This study will give an overview of SABT, focusing on the advances in SABT optimization, and provide insights on the future benefits of the combined application of SABT with cancer immunotherapies.
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