It has been proposed that the developmental programming of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is a conserved evolutionary response to a suboptimal early environment which originates in the embryo, fetus or neonate and which persists into postnatal life in anticipation of a life of adversity (Worthman and Kuzara, 2005). Such a programmed response may result in an increased stress responsiveness and hypercortisolism in postnatal life and may in turn exacerbate the metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae of a poor early environment which include central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hypertension (Barker and Osmond, 1986, Barker et al., 1989, McMillen and Robinson, 2005, Phillips, 2007).
|Title of host publication||Stress and Developmental Programming of Health and Disease|
|Subtitle of host publication||Beyond Phenomenology|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publisher, Inc|
|Number of pages||44|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Oct 2014|