The complete amino acid sequence of human liver NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase has been determined by microsequence analysis and mass spectrometry. The total sequence consists of 676 amino acids initiated by an amino-terminal acetyl group. There is no evidence for posttranslational modifications, including Asn-linked glycosylation. The human enzyme exhibits sequence homology in the range of 92-95% with other mammalian enzymes. Sequence differences were mainly confined to several hydrophilic regions in the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal domains. Since the human enzyme is immunochemically distinct from the rabbit enzyme despite similar enzymatic properties, it is likely that these variable hydrophilic regions are potential antigenic determinants. The NADPH-depleted enzyme is inactivated by either fluorescein isothiocyanate, a lysine-specific reagent, or 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein, a cysteine-specific reagent. In both cases, protection by NADP(H) prevents enzyme inactivation by the reagents. Isolation of fluorescent peptide from 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein-inactivated enzyme identified Cys 565 as the specifically NADPH-protected residue.