Structural Insights to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Targets and Their Inhibition

Murugesan Vanangamudi, Pramod C. Nair, S. E.Maida Engels, Senthilkumar Palaniappan, Vigneshwaran Namasivayam

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a deadly virus that attacks the body’s immune system, subsequently leading to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and ultimately death. Currently, there is no vaccine or effective cure for this infection; however, antiretrovirals that act at various phases of the virus life cycle have been useful to control the viral load in patients. One of the major problems with antiretroviral therapies involves drug resistance. The three-dimensional structure from crystallography studies are instrumental in understanding the structural basis of drug binding to various targets. This chapter provides key insights into different targets and drugs used in the treatment from a structural perspective. Specifically, an insight into the binding characteristics of drugs at the active and allosteric sites of different targets and the importance of targeting allosteric sites for design of new-generation antiretrovirals to overcome complex and resistant forms of the virus has been reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAntiviral Drug Discovery and Development
EditorsXinyong Liu , Peng Zhan, Luis Menéndez-Arias, Vasanthanathan Poongavanam
Place of PublicationSingapore
Number of pages33
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-16-0267-2
ISBN (Print)978-981-16-0266-5
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Drug resistance
  • Entry inhibitors
  • Integrase inhibitor
  • Non-nucleoside RT inhibitors
  • Nucleoside RT inhibitors
  • Protease inhibitors
  • X-ray crystallography


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