Highly attenuated viral vectors, purified protein antigens and DNA vaccines all suffer from problems of low immunogenicity providing a major challenge to find the best way to address this problem. A convenient solution is to identify a suitable adjuvant to add to the vaccine formulation to enhance its immunogenicity. Adjuvants come in many shapes and flavours, with no single unifying theme to explain why such a diversity of compounds should share the ability to enhance vaccine action. Hence adjuvant selection remains an empiric exercise of trial and error, largely based on comparisons of adjuvant potency in animal models plus assessment of safety and tolerability. In addition, there are unique challenges with successfully adjuvanting nonprotein-based vaccine technologies such as viral vectors or DNA vaccines for which existing adjuvant technologies such as aluminium salts or oil emulsions are likely to be unsuitable or incompatible. Amongst the many different groups of potential adjuvant compounds, carbohydrate-based adjuvants have received relatively little attention despite having favourable properties including compatibility for formulation with live vector vaccines, safety, tolerability and ease of manufacture and formulation. These properties may make them ideal for use across all vaccine platforms including live viral vectors and DNA vaccines. This chapter will review the various carbohydrate-based adjuvants and the science that underpins their activity and will highlight the potential for sugar-based adjuvants to replace more traditional adjuvant such as aluminium salts and oil emulsions across a wide variety of human and veterinary vaccine applications using traditional antigens, viral vectors or DNA to protect against infectious disease and for treatment of cancer and allergy.
|Title of host publication||Novel Technologies for Vaccine Development|
|Editors||I Lukashevich, H Shirwan|
|Number of pages||22|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Oct 2014|
- West Nile virus
- vector vaccine
- adjuvant activity