Surface Passivation of Sputtered NiOxUsing a SAM Interface Layer to Enhance the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells

Amira R.M. Alghamdi, Masatoshi Yanagida, Yasuhiro Shirai, Gunther G. Andersson, Kenjiro Miyano

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Sputtered NiOx (sp-NiOx) is a preferred hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells because of its hole mobility, ease of manufacturability, good stability, and suitable Fermi level for hole extraction. However, uncontrolled defects in sp-NiOx can limit the efficiency of solar cells fabricated with this hole transporting layer. An interfacial layer has been proposed to modify the sp-NiOx/perovskite interface, which can contribute to improving the crystallinity of the perovskite film. Herein, a 2-(3,6-dimethoxy-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid (MeO-2PACz) self-assembled monolayer was used to modify an sp-NiOx surface. We found that the MeO-2PACz interlayer improves the quality of the perovskite film due to an enlarged domain size, reduced charge recombination at the sp-NiOx/perovskite interface, and passivation of the defects in sp-NiOx surfaces. In addition, the band tail states are also reduced, as indicated by photothermal deflection spectroscopy, which thus indicates a reduction in defect levels. The overall outcome is an improvement in the device efficiency from 11.9% to 17.2% due to the modified sp-NiOx/perovskite interface, with an active area of 1 cm2 (certified efficiency of 16.25%). On the basis of these results, the interfacial engineering of the electronic properties of sp-NiOx/MeO-2PACz/perovskite is discussed in relation to the improved device performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12147-12157
Number of pages11
JournalACS Omega
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2022


  • Oxides
  • Defects
  • Interfaces
  • Perovskites
  • Layers


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