Synthesis and Applications of Polymers Made by Inverse Vulcanization

Justin M. Chalker, Max J. H. Worthington, Nicholas A. Lundquist, Louisa J. Esdaile

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Elemental sulfur is an abundant and inexpensive chemical feedstock, yet it is underused as a starting material in chemical synthesis. Recently, a process coined inverse vulcanization was introduced in which elemental sulfur is converted into polymers by ring-opening polymerization, followed by cross-linking with an unsaturated organic molecule such as a polyene. The resulting materials have high sulfur content (typically 50–90% sulfur by mass) and display a range of interesting properties such as dynamic S–S bonds, redox activity, high refractive indices, mid-wave IR transparency, and heavy metal affinity. These properties have led to a swell of applications of these polymers in repairable materials, energy generation and storage, optical devices, and environmental remediation. This article will discuss the synthesis of polymers by inverse vulcanization and review case studies on their diverse applications. An outlook is also presented to discuss future opportunities and challenges for further advancement of polymers made by inverse vulcanization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
Number of pages27
JournalTOPICS IN CURRENT CHEMISTRY
Volume377
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Inverse vulcanization
  • Polymer
  • Polysulfide
  • Sulfur
  • Sulfur polymer

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