Synthesis of 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 4-arylpyrimidines: route specific markers for the Leuckardt preparation of amphetamine, 4-methoxyamphetamine, and 4-methylthioamphetamine

K. Paul Kirkbride, A. David Ward, Natalie F. Jenkins, Gunter Klass, John C. Coumbaros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

General synthetic routes to 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 5-arylpyrimidines are described. 4-Benzylpyrimidine, 4-methyl-5-phenylpyrimidine, 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine, and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been positively identified as route-specific by-products in the Leuckardt preparations of amphetamine and 4-methoxyamphetamine. Using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been identified in illicit tablets containing 4-methoxyamphetamine. This is an indication that illicit laboratories use the Leuckardt method for the preparation of 4-methoxyamphetamine. Flatliner tablets containing 4-methylthioamphetamine have been screened for the presence of 4-(4-methylthiobenzyl)pyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-(4-methylthiophenyl)pyrimidine using both headspace and aqueous phase SPME. As these pyrimidines were not detected it would appear likely that illicit laboratories are not using the Leuckardt method for the preparation of 4-methylthioamphetamine. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-67
Number of pages15
JournalForensic Science International
Volume115
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 4- (4-Methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine
  • 4-(4-Methylthiobenzyl)pyrimidine
  • 4-Benzylpyrimidine
  • 4-Methoxyamphetamine
  • 4-Methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidin e
  • 4-Methyl-5-(4-methylthiophenyl )pyrimidine
  • 4-Methyl-5-phenylpyrimidine
  • 4-Methylthioamphetam ine
  • Amphetamine
  • Designer drugs
  • Leuckardt reaction
  • Solid phase microextraction

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