Tabu search based multi-watermarks embedding algorithm with multiple description coding

Hsiang-Cheh Huang, Shu-Chuan Chu, Jeng-Shyang Pan, Chun-Yen Huang, Bin-Yih Liao

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    50 Citations (Scopus)


    Digital watermarking is a useful solution for digital rights management systems, and it has been a popular research topic in the last decade. Most watermarking related literature focuses on how to resist deliberate attacks by applying benchmarks to watermarked media that assess the effectiveness of the watermarking algorithm. Only a few papers have concentrated on the error-resilient transmission of watermarked media. In this paper, we propose an innovative algorithm for vector quantization (VQ) based image watermarking, which is suitable for error-resilient transmission over noisy channels. By incorporating watermarking with multiple description coding (MDC), the scheme we propose to embed multiple watermarks can effectively overcome channel impairments while retaining the capability for copyright and ownership protection. In addition, we employ an optimization technique, called tabu search, to optimize both the watermarked image quality and the robustness of the extracted watermarks. We have obtained promising simulation results that demonstrate the utility and practicality of our algorithm.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3379-3396
    Number of pages18
    JournalInformation Sciences
    Issue number16
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2011


    • Error resilience
    • Multiple description coding
    • Optimization
    • Tabu search
    • Vector quantization
    • Watermarking


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