The main aims of the present study were to compare the frequency of social phobia and taijin kyofusho symptoms among young adults in Japan and in England and to examine the role of family environment in the development of these two conditions. A total of 927 young adults (462 in England and 465 in Japan) between the ages of 19 and 24 were investigated. They completed a set of questionnaires that were used to measure social phobia and taijin kyofusho symptoms, as well as family background. Results showed that young adults in Japan reported significantly higher levels of taijin kyofusho and social phobia symptoms than young adults in England. Family sociability had a consistent effect on both social phobia and taijin kyofusho symptoms across the two cultures, but parental rearing attitudes showed distinct patterns between the two countries. This finding suggests that cross-cultural models need to consider familial factors that may be predictive across cultures and others that may be more culturally specific.