The association between dietary intake and cardiometabolic risk factors among obese adolescents in Indonesia

Indah Murni, Dian Sulistyoningrum, Rina Susilowati, Madarina Julia, Kacie Dickinson

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Background and objective: Poor diets, characterized by excess fat, sugar and sodium intakes, are considered to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Diet patterns and intakes during adolescence may persist into adulthood and impact on risk for chronic disease later in life. We aimed to evaluate the dietary intake of obese adolescents and its relationship to cardiometabolic health including lipid status and glycemic control. Methods and study design: This was a cross-sectional study of obese children aged 15 to < 18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. All children had a medical history performed including a physical examination and fasting blood sample. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative recall food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression model was performed to determine the relationship between dietary intakes and cardiovascular disease risks and to adjust for potential confounders. Results: Of 179 adolescents, 101 (57.4%) were male and median age was 16.4 (15.0–17.9) years. The majority of adolescents (98%) had inadequate intake of fibre and exceeded intakes of total fat (65%) and total sugar (36%). There was statistically significant correlation found in the multivariable linear regression analysis between fibre intake and HDL cholesterol after adjusting for potential confounders (β = 0.165; p = 0.033). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there is a high proportion of obese Indonesian adolescents with poor dietary intakes. There was relationship observed between intake of nutrients of concern (fibre) and cardiometabolic risk factor among this sample of obese adolescents. Future research should examine overall dietary patterns in more detail among this population to elucidate the role of poor diet intakes in development of cardiovascular disease risk factors in young people transitioning into adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Article number273
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Pediatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Dietary intake
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Obese
  • Adolescents
  • Indonesia


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