Background: Readmissions within 30 days of discharge are prominent among patients with cardiovascular disease. Post hospital syndrome hypothesizes that sleep disturbance during the index admission contributes to an acquired transient vulnerability, leading to increased risk of readmission. This study evaluated the association of in-hospital sleep (a) duration and (b) quality with 30-day all-cause unplanned readmission. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included patients admitted to the coronary care unit of a South Australian hospital between 2016–2018. Study participants were invited to wear an ActiGraph GT3X+ for the duration of their admission and for two weeks post-discharge. Validated sleep and quality of life questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), were administered. Readmission status and questionnaires were assessed at 30 days post-discharge via patient telephone interview and a review of hospital records. Results: The final cohort consisted of 75 patients (readmitted: n = 15, non-readmitted: n = 60), of which 72% were male with a mean age 66.9 ± 13.1 years. Total sleep time (TST), both in hospital (6.9 ± 1.3 vs. 6.8 ± 2.9 h, p = 0.96) and post-discharge (7.4 ± 1.3 h vs. 8.9 ± 12.6 h, p = 0.76), was similar in all patients. Patient’s perception of sleep, reflected by PSQI scores, was poorer in readmitted patients (9.13 ± 3.6 vs. 6.4 ± 4.1, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Although an association between total sleep time and 30-day readmission was not found, patients who reported poorer sleep quality were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days. This study also highlighted the importance of improving sleep, both in and out of the hospital, to improve the outcomes of cardiology inpatients.