Fruit antioxidants have many health benefits including prevention of cancer development. The native Australian bush fruit Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus Endl., Podocarpaceae) has a high content of anthocyanin-rich phenolics, with an antioxidant capacity at levels higher than most fruits. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of the anti-proliferative activity of Illawarra plum on colorectal cancer cells were investigated. Non-tumorigenic young adult mouse colonic (YAMC) cells and tumorigenic human colonic (HT-29) cells were treated with a polyphenolic-rich Illawarra plum extract (0-1000 μg/ml). Illawarra plum had anti-proliferative properties in only the cancer cells, with growth suppressed in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Treatment of HT-29 cells with Illawarra plum extract (500 μg/ml; 24 h) was also associated with a 2-fold increase in apoptosis, and a cell cycle delay in the S phase (P< 0·01). Assessment of biomarkers for DNA damage revealed that plum treatment caused a 93 % down-regulation of telomerase activity (P< 0·001) and a decrease in telomere length (up to 75 %; P< 0·01). Treatment with Illawarra plum extract also induced morphological alterations to HT-29 cells that were suggestive of induction of autophagy, as the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles was observed in many cells. This could be induced by the increased (6-fold) histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity (P< 0·001) and the trend for increased expression of the class III HDAC sirtuin 1. The present study has shown that Illawarra plum extract is able to reduce the proliferation of colon cancer cells by altering the cell cycle, increasing apoptosis and possibly inducing autophagy. The active ingredients in Illawarra plum may provide an alternative chemoprevention strategy to conventional chemotherapy.
- Colon cancer
- Histone deacetylase