The Bothriolepis (Placodermi, Antiarcha) material from the Valentia Slate Formation of the Iveragh Peninsula (middle Givetian, Ireland): Morphology, evolutionary and systematic considerations, phylogenetic and palaeogeographic implications

Vincent Dupret, Hannah Byrne, Niela Castro, Øyvind Hammer, Kenneth Higgs, John Long, Grzegorz Niedzwiedzki, Martin Qvarnstrom, Iwan Stossel, Per Ahlberg

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Abstract

Material of the antiarch placoderm Bothriolepis from the middle Givetian of the Valentia Slate Formation in Iveragh Peninsula, Ireland, is described and attributed to a new species, B. dairbhrensis sp. nov. A revision of the genus Bothriolepis is proposed, and its taxonomic content and previous phylogenetic analyses are reviewed, as well as the validity of morphologic characteristics considered important for the establishment of the genus, such as the shape of the preorbital recess of the neurocranium. A series of computerised phylogenetic analyses was performed, which reveals that our new species is the sister taxon to the Frasnian Scottish form B. gigantea. New phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses of the genus Bothriolepis together with comparisons between faunal assemblages reveal a first northward dispersal wave from Gondwana to Euramerica at the latest in the mid Givetian. Other Euramerican species of Bothriolepis seem to belong to later dispersal waves from Gondwana, non-excluding southward waves from Euramerica. Questions remain open such as the taxonomic validity and stratigraphic constraints for the most ancient forms of Bothriolepis in China, and around the highly speciose nature of the genus.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0280208
Number of pages63
JournalPLoS One
Volume18
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Placoderms
  • Devonian
  • Biogeography
  • Phylogeny
  • Ireland
  • paleoecology

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