The changing tides of drug consumption, supply and drug policy in Oceania

Amber Marks, Caitlin Hughes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter critically analyses use, production, supply and trafficking as well as key laws and policy responses across the region of Oceania. It shows that the prevalence of use is high in some parts of Oceania (notably Australia and New Zealand) and that whilst there remain large gaps in data monitoring capacity in most Pacific countries, there are clear indications that the Pacific countries are increasingly being used as transit trafficking routes to Australia and New Zealand. A wide range of policy responses are discussed, including the first jurisdiction in the world to legalize medical and recreational cannabis simultaneously (in the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands); the first legislative framework for the lawful sale of psychoactive substances for recreational purposes (in New Zealand) and one of the longest adopters of cannabis decriminalization of personal use, possession and cultivation and police diversion programmes for use and possession of all illegal drugs (in Australia).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationResearch Handbook on International Drug Policy
EditorsDavid Bewley-Taylor, Khalid Tinasti
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
PublisherEdward Elgar Publishing Ltd
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781788117067
ISBN (Print)9781788117050
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Drug markets
  • Drug policy
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Pacific Islands
  • Comparative analysis
  • Drug supply
  • Demand


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