The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): A cross cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents

Julia Dewald, Michelle Short, Michael Gradisar, Frans Oort, Anne Marie Meijer

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    33 Citations (Scopus)


    Although adolescents often experience insufficient and/or poor sleep, sleep variables such as total sleep time do not account for individuals' sleep need and sleep debt and may therefore be an inadequate representation of adolescents' sleep problems and its daytime consequences. This problem can be overcome by using the Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ), an assessment tool that measures symptoms of chronic sleep reduction and therefore accounting for sleep need and sleep debt. The present study aims at developing an English version of the CSRQ and assesses the reliability and validity of the Dutch and the English CSRQ version. The CSRQ was administered in large Dutch (n=166, age=15.2±0.57years, 28% male) and Australian (n=236, age=15.5±0.99years, 65% males) samples. Subjective sleep variables were measured with surveys and sleep diaries of five school nights. Additionally, sleep of the same five nights was monitored with actigraphy. Both CSRQ versions showed good psychometric properties concerning their reliability (Dutch: α=0.85; English: α=0.87) and validity as the same overall structure of the two CSRQ versions and significant correlations with subjective and objective sleep variables were found. School grades were related to chronic sleep reduction, whereas the relationship between grades and other sleep variables was weak or absent. These results highlight the idea that chronic sleep reduction may be a better indicator of adolescents' insufficient and/or poor sleep than other sleep variables such as total sleep time.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)584-594
    Number of pages11
    JournalJournal of Sleep Research
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


    • Adolescents
    • Chronic sleep reduction
    • Psychometric properties
    • School performance
    • Sleep


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