Studies investigating whether there is a causative link between the gut microbiota and lifespan have largely been restricted to invertebrates or to mice with a reduced lifespan because of a genetic deficiency. We investigate the effect of early-life antibiotic exposure on otherwise healthy, normal chow-fed, wild-type mice, monitoring these mice for more than 700 days in comparison with untreated control mice. We demonstrate the emergence of two different low-diversity community types, post-antibiotic microbiota (PAM) I and PAM II, following antibiotic exposure. PAM II but not PAM I mice have impaired immunity, increased insulin resistance, and evidence of increased inflammaging in later life as well as a reduced lifespan. Our data suggest that differences in the composition of the gut microbiota following antibiotic exposure differentially affect host health and longevity in later life.