The Diagnostic Performance of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for Detecting Advanced Neoplasia at Surveillance Colonoscopy

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Abstract

Background & Aims: An increasing burden on health care resources has resulted in a backlog of individuals requiring colonoscopy, with delays in surveillance possibly detrimental for individuals at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study investigated the use of a 2-sample fecal immunochemical test (FIT) to establish those most likely to have advanced neoplasia (AN) and in need of prioritized surveillance colonoscopy. 

Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in the tertiary care setting. Participants completed a 2-sample FIT (OC-Sensor, Eiken Chemical Company) within 90 days of surveillance colonoscopy. The sensitivity of FIT for detection of AN (CRC or advanced adenoma) in moderate- and high-risk individuals was determined at fecal hemoglobin thresholds between 2 and 80 μg/g feces. 

Results: A total of 766 patients were included (median age, 66.1 years [interquartile range, 58.1–72.9]; 49.9% male), with AN detected in 8.6% (66/766, including 5 CRC). For moderate-risk individuals (with prior history of adenoma or a significant family history of CRC), sensitivity of FIT for AN ranged from 73.5% at 2 μg/g feces, to 10.2% at 80 μg/g feces. For high-risk conditions (confirmed/suspected genetic syndromes or prior CRC), sensitivity of FIT was similar, ranging from 70.6% at the lowest positivity threshold of 2 μg/g feces, to 11.8% at 80 μg/g feces. Independent variables in the whole cohort for association with detection of AN at surveillance colonoscopy were age (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.06) and FIT hemoglobin result ≥10 μg/g feces (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–3.16). 

Conclusions: The use of FIT before surveillance colonoscopy provides clinicians with insights into the risk of AN. This raises the possibility of a method to triage individuals, facilitating the more efficient management of endoscopic resources.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Early online date22 Sept 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Sept 2023

Keywords

  • Colonoscopy
  • Colorectal Neoplasia
  • Fecal Immunochemical Test
  • Surveillance

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