The Effect of Multimorbidity Patterns and the Impact of Comorbid Anxiety and Depression on Primary Health Service Use: The Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study

Shu-Kay Ng, Sean A. Martin, Robert J. Adams, Peter O’Loughlin, Gary A. Wittert

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Abstract

This study sought to determine patterns of multimorbidity and quantify their impact on use of primary health services in the presence and absence of anxiety and depression among a cohort of urban community-dwelling men in Australia. The analytic sample consisted of men (n = 2039; age 38–85) from the follow-up wave of a prospective cohort study of all participants of the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS; Stage 2 [2007–2010]) and age-matched men from the North-West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS; Stage 3 [2008–2010]). Self-reported data and linkage with a national universal health coverage scheme (Medicare) provided information on the prevalence of eight chronic conditions and health service utilization information (including annual GP visits). Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were associated with the highest number of comorbid conditions. Two nonrandom multimorbidity “clusters” emerged: “CVD, Obesity, Diabetes” and “CVD, Obesity, Osteoarthritis.” Participants with conditions comorbid with CVD were more likely to have 10 or more annual GP visits, compared to multimorbidity involving other conditions. In comparison to participants without CVD, the presence of CVD increased the chance of having 10 or more annual GP visits (adjusted risk ratio: 3.7; 95% CI [2.8, 4.8]). When CVD was comorbid with anxiety and depression, having 10 or more annual GP visits was more common (adjusted risk ratio: 1.8; 95% CI [1.2, 2.5]). Multimorbidity patterns involving CVD, especially for multimorbidity that includes CVD with comorbid anxiety and depression, should be considered in developing clinical trials to better inform medical decision-making and care for patients with CVD and comorbid conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Men's Health
Volume14
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cohort studies
  • depression
  • men’s health
  • multimorbidity
  • primary health services use

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