Purpose: Intravenous (IV) opioids are administered for management of acute postoperative pain in the postanesthesia care unit. The benefits of parenteral oxycodone for acute pain management are understudied. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of IV oxycodone for acute postoperative pain. Design: A systematic review of quantitative studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach. Methods: A search for randomized controlled trials was conducted, revealing 314 potentially relevant studies. These were compared with the inclusion criteria. Those that met these criteria were critically appraised. Findings: Participants (N = 506) in eight trials were included in this review. Four studies supported the use of IV oxycodone as patient-controlled analgesia and IV bolus. The remaining studies showed equipotent effects between oxycodone and control. Higher incidences of adverse effects were associated with IV oxycodone. Conclusions: IV oxycodone can be considered as effective analgesia for acute postoperative pain with careful regards to its adverse effects.