The factorial invariance of the CES-D during adolescence: Are symptom profiles for depression stable across gender and time?

Marjolein Verhoeven, Michael Sawyer, Susan Spence

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    22 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This study examined the factorial invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) across gender and time during adolescence. The factor structure of the CES-D was compared at four annual measurement waves in a community sample of 2650 Australian adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor structure of the CES-D was generally invariant across gender and time. However, gender differences were found on three items: for all waves the item 'I had crying spells' was a stronger indicator for depressive affect in females than males. On the final three waves the item 'people were unfriendly' loaded significantly higher on the factor 'Interpersonal Relations' for males than females. On Wave 2 and 3 males interpreted the item 'everything I did was an effort' with a positive connotation, whereas females interpret it with a negative association. These gender-differences are discussed from both a theoretical and a methodological perspective.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)181-190
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Adolescence
    Volume36
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

    Keywords

    • Adolescence
    • CES-D
    • Depression
    • Factorial invariance
    • Gender

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