The Good Sleeper Scale-15 items: a questionnaire for the standardised assessment of good sleepers

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Research with ‘good sleepers’ is ubiquitous, yet there are no standardised criteria to identify a ‘good sleeper’. The present study aimed to create and validate a questionnaire for identifying good sleepers for use in research studies known as the Good Sleeper Scale-15 items (GSS-15). Data were derived from a population-based survey of Australian adults (n = 2,044). A total of 23 items were chosen for possible inclusion. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on ~10% of the survey dataset (n = 191) for factor identification and item reduction. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the remaining data (n = 1,853) to test model fit. Receiver operating characteristic curves and correlations were conducted to derive cut-off scores and test associations with sleep, daytime functioning, health, and quality-of-life. The EFA identified six factors: ‘Sleep Difficulties’, ‘Timing’, ‘Duration’, ‘Regularity’, ‘Adequacy’, and ‘Perceived Sleep Problem’. The CFA showed that model fit was high and comparable to other sleep instruments, χ2 (63) = 378.22, p < 0.001, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, with acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.76). Strong correlations were consistently found between GSS-15 global scores and outcomes, including ‘a good night′s sleep’ (r = 0.7), ‘feeling un-refreshed’ (r = −0.59), and ‘experienced sleepiness’ (r = −0.51), p < 0.001. Cut-off scores were derived to categorise individuals likely to be a good sleeper (GSS-15 score ≥40) and those very likely to be a good sleeper (GSS-15 score ≥45). The GSS-15 is a freely available, robust questionnaire that will assist in identifying good sleepers for the purpose of sleep research. Future work will test relationships with other sleep measures in community and clinical samples.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13717
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Sleep Research
Issue number2
Early online date5 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Good sleeper
  • scale validation
  • sleep
  • sleep disorder
  • sleep health


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