The HAND-Q: Psychometrics of a New Patient-reported Outcome Measure for Clinical and Research Applications

Kyra L. Sierakowski, Nicola R. Dean, Kathleen Evans Sanchez, Philip A. Griffin, Justin C.R. Wormald, Jeremy N. Rodrigues, Olivier Mares, Jussi P. Repo, Sina M. Hulkkonen, Neil V. Shah, Steven Koehler, Gregory I. Bain, Stefan J. Cano, Andrea L. Pusic, Don Lalonde, Anne F. Klassen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Background: The perspective of the patient in measuring the outcome of their hand treatment is of key importance. We developed a hand-specific patientreported outcome measure to provide a means to measure outcomes and experiences of care from the patient perspective, that is, HAND-Q. Methods: Data were collected from people with a broad range of hand conditions in hand clinics in six countries between April 2018 and January 2021. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used to perform item reduction and to examine reliability and validity of each HAND-Q scale. Results: A sample of 1277 patients was recruited. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 89 years, 54% were women, and a broad range of congenital and acquired hand conditions were represented. Rasch measurement theory analysis led to the refinement of 14 independently functioning scales that measure hand appearance, health-related quality of life, experience of care, and treatment outcome. Each scale evidenced reliability and validity. Examination of differential item functioning by age, gender, language, and type of hand condition (ie, nontraumatic versus traumatic) confirmed that a common scoring algorithm for each scale could be implemented. Conclusions: The HAND-Q was developed following robust psychometric methods to provide a comprehensive modular independently functioning set of scales. HAND-Q scales can be used to assess and compare evidence-based outcomes in patients with any type of hand condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3998
Number of pages8
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • HAND-Q
  • hand conditions
  • patient outcomes
  • patient assessment


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