The Historical Evolution of Ocular Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future

Bjorn Kaijun Betzler, Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran, John Kempen, Justine R. Smith, Peter McCluskey, Quan Dong Nguyen, Carlos Pavesio, Vishali Gupta, Rupesh Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Ocular involvement is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. Four key issues historically faced by clinicians when diagnosing and treating ocular tuberculosis–diagnostic uncertainty, naturally heterogeneous presentations, limitations of existing laboratory diagnostic tools, and non-uniform treatment guidelines–continue to test today’s physicians. Unparalleled scientific and clinical developments over the past century have greatly expanded the knowledge surrounding this challenging ophthalmic condition. Experience with large volumes of cases at tuberculosis-endemic centres has led to recent growth in knowledge and physician experience, perhaps more so in developing countries. Looking forward, the role of diverse new technologies, including artificial intelligence and proteomics, will advance ocular tuberculosis research. Efforts have been made to address the lack of standardized nomenclature, diagnostic uncertainty, and unvalidated, geographically variable treatment guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)593-599
Number of pages7
JournalOcular Immunology and Inflammation
Issue number3
Early online date9 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • artificial intelligence
  • consumption
  • History
  • inflammation
  • ocular tuberculosis
  • proteomics
  • tuberculosis
  • uveitis


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