The impact of dietary risk factors on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

Yohannes Adama Melaku, Awoke Misganaw Temesgen, Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Berhe W. Sahle, Semaw Ferede Abera, Tolesa Bekele, Ferew Lemma, Azmeraw Amare, Oumer Seid, Kedir Endris, Abiy Hiruye, Amare Worku, Robert Adams, Anne Taylor, Tiffany Gill, Zumin Shi, Ashkan Afshin, Mohammad Forouzanfar

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Abstract

Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. The contribution of dietary behaviours to the NCD burden in Ethiopia has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, aimed to assess diet-related burden of disease in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013. Method: We used the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data to estimate deaths, years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) related to eight food types, five nutrients and fibre intake. Dietary exposure was estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression. The effect size of each diet-disease pair was obtained based on meta-analyses of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials. A comparative risk assessment approach was used to quantify the proportion of NCD burden associated with dietary risk factors. Results: In 2013, dietary factors were responsible for 60,402 deaths (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 44,943-74,898) in Ethiopia-almost a quarter (23.0%) of all NCD deaths. Nearly nine in every ten diet-related deaths (88.0%) were from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and 44.0% of all CVD deaths were related to poor diet. Suboptimal diet accounted for 1,353,407 DALYs (95% UI: 1,010,433-1,672,828) and 1,291,703 YLLs (95% UI: 961,915-1,599,985). Low intake of fruits and vegetables and high intake of sodium were the most important dietary factors. The proportion of NCD deaths associated with low fruit consumption slightly increased (11.3% in 1990 and 11.9% in 2013). In these years, the rate of burden of disease related to poor diet slightly decreased; however, their contribution to NCDs remained stable. Conclusions: Dietary behaviour contributes significantly to the NCD burden in Ethiopia. Intakes of diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in sodium are the leading dietary risks. To effectively mitigate the oncoming NCD burden in Ethiopia, multisectoral interventions are required; and nutrition policies and dietary guidelines should be developed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Keywords

  • Ethiopia
  • Global Burden of Disease Study
  • Non-communicable disease

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    Melaku, Y. A., Temesgen, A. M., Deribew, A., Tessema, G. A., Deribe, K., Sahle, B. W., Abera, S. F., Bekele, T., Lemma, F., Amare, A., Seid, O., Endris, K., Hiruye, A., Worku, A., Adams, R., Taylor, A., Gill, T., Shi, Z., Afshin, A., & Forouzanfar, M. (2016). The impact of dietary risk factors on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), [122]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0447-x