Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance during femoropopliteal artery interventions reduced the rate of binary restenosis within 12 months compared with angiographic guidance alone.
Background: IVUS is more accurate than angiography for assessment of vessel size and disease severity. Low-level studies suggest that the use of IVUS in femoropopliteal endovascular interventions improves outcomes, but currently, no level 1 evidence exists.
Methods: This was a prospective single-center trial of 150 patients undergoing femoropopliteal endovascular intervention, randomized (1:1) to guidance by angiography or angiography and IVUS. The primary outcome measure was freedom from binary restenosis, on duplex ultrasound, within 12 months. Secondary outcomes included clinically driven target lesion revascularization, disagreements in imaging findings between modalities, and changes in treatment caused by IVUS.
Results: Freedom from binary restenosis at 12 months was significantly higher in the IVUS group (72.4% vs 55.4%; P = 0.008). There was no significant difference between groups for clinically directed target lesion revascularization (84.2% and 82.4%; P = 0.776). Mean vessel diameter was significantly larger with IVUS (5.60 mm vs 5.10 mm; P < 0.001). A change in treatment occurred caused by IVUS in 79% of cases. Binary restenosis was lower in the IVUS group for cases treated with drug-coated balloons (9.1% vs 37.5%; P = 0.001).
Conclusions: The use of IVUS resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of restenosis after endovascular intervention. This is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that IVUS improves outcomes in femoropopliteal interventions. This benefit may primarily relate to cases treated with drug-coated balloons. (Does the use of intravascular ultrasound improve outcomes of endovascular interventional procedures for peripheral vascular disease of the superficial femoral artery or popliteal artery?; ACTRN12614000006640) (J Am Coll Cardiol Intv 2022;15:536–546) © 2022 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
- binary restenosis
- endovascular intervention
- femoropopliteal arteries
- intravascular ultrasound
- peripheral arterial disease