The study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), the most widely used measure of dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Multiple exploratory methods (exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis by variable, multidimensional scaling) were used to examine the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses were also performed in two large nonclinical samples from Australia (N = 1,234) and Israel (N = 617). Our analyses suggested a four-factor solution with 38 items, where threat and responsibility formed separate dimensions (the "OBQ-TRIP"). This version had superior fit statistics across the two divergent confirmatory samples, when compared with four alternative models suggested by previous authors. Of the OBQ dimensions, the threat scale correlated most strongly with OCD symptom measures, even when controlling for depression. A short, 20-item version of the scale is offered for further study. Implications and limitations are discussed.