Mucositis research and treatment are a rapidly evolving field providing constant new avenues of research and potential therapies. The MASCC/ISOO Mucositis Study Group regularly assesses available literature relating to pathogenesis, mechanisms, and novel therapeutic approaches and distils this to summary perspectives and recommendations. Reviewers assessed 164 articles published between January 2011 and June 2016 to identify progress made since the last review and highlight new targets for further investigation. Findings were organized into sections including established and emerging mediators of toxicity, potential insights from technological advances in mucositis research, and perspective. Research momentum is accelerating for mucositis pathogenesis, and with this has come utilization of new models and interventions that target specific mechanisms of injury. Technological advances have the potential to revolutionize the field of mucositis research, although focused effort is needed to move rationally targeted interventions to the clinical setting.