Several G proteins of the Rho family have been shown to be required for cytokinesis. The activity of these proteins is regulated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs), which stimulate GDP/GTP exchange, and by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which suppress activity by stimulating the intrinsic GTPase activity. The role of Rho family members during cytokinesis is likely to be determined by their spatial and temporal interactions with these factors. Here we focus on the role of the pebble (pbl) gene of Drosophila melanogaster, a RhoGEF that is required for cytokinesis. We summarise the evidence that the primary target of PBL is Rho1 and describe genetic approaches to elucidating the function of PBL and identifying other components of the PBL-activated Rho signalling pathway.