The Presence of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Residential Buildings: A Literature Review

Claire Hayward, Kirstin E. Ross, Melissa H. Brown, Richard Bentham, Harriet Whiley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP) are microorganisms that are native to the plumbing environment and that present an emerging infectious disease problem. They share characteristics, such as disinfectant resistance, thermal tolerance, and biofilm formation. The colonisation of domestic water systems presents an elevated health risk for immune-compromised individuals who receive healthcare at home. The literature that has identified the previously described OPPPs (Aeromonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Helicobacter spp., Legionella spp., Methylobacterium spp., Mycobacteria spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Stenotrophomonas spp.) in residential drinking water systems were systematically reviewed. By applying the Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines, 214 studies were identified from the Scopus and Web of Science databases, which included 30 clinical case investigations. Tap components and showerheads were the most frequently identified sources of OPPPs. Sixty-four of these studies detected additional clinically relevant pathogens that are not classified as OPPPs in these reservoirs. There was considerable variation in the detection methods, which included traditional culturing and molecular approaches. These identified studies demonstrate that the current drinking water treatment methods are ineffective against many waterborne pathogens. It is critical that, as at-home healthcare services continue to be promoted, we understand the emergent risks that are posed by OPPPs in residential drinking water. Future research is needed in order to provide consistent data on the prevalence of OPPPs in residential water, and on the incidence of waterborne homecare-associated infections. This will enable the identification of the contributing risk factors, and the development of effective controls.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1129
Number of pages24
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Volume14
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • biofilm
  • disinfectant resistance
  • drinking water
  • opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens

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