The production effect in memory.

Colin M. MacLeod, Glen Bodner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Producing items by means as simple as saying, writing, or typing them can yield substantial memory improvements relative to silent reading. We review the research on this production effect and outline some important extensions and boundary conditions. We also evaluate the evidence that production enhances the distinctiveness of items in memory during encoding, thereby facilitating their later retrieval. There are issues to resolve and areas to explore, but production offers a practical means of enhancing some forms of long-term, explicit memory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)390-395
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Directions in Psychological Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017


  • distinctiveness
  • encoding
  • memory
  • production
  • retrieval


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