The Regulation of Peripheral Metabolism by Gut-Derived Hormones

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Abstract

Enteroendocrine cells lining the gut epithelium constitute the largest endocrine organ in the body and secrete over 20 different hormones in response to cues from ingested foods and changes in nutritional status. Not only do these hormones convey signals from the gut to the brain via the gut-brain axis, they also act directly on metabolically important peripheral targets in a highly concerted fashion to maintain energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Gut-derived hormones released during fasting tend to be orexigenic and have hyperglycaemic potential. Conversely, gut hormones secreted postprandially generally promote satiety and facilitate glucose clearance. Although some of the metabolic benefits conferred by bariatric surgeries have been ascribed to changes in the secretory profiles of various gut hormones, the therapeutic potential of the enteroendocrine system as a viable target against metabolic diseases remain largely underexploited, except for incretin-mimetics. This review provides a brief overview of the physiological importance and highlights the therapeutic potential of the following gut hormones: serotonin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, insulin-like peptide 5, and ghrelin.

Original languageEnglish
Article number754
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Volume9
Issue numberJAN
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2019 Sun, Martin, Young and Keating. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the
original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original
publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these
terms.

Keywords

  • Serotonin
  • endocrine cells
  • hormones
  • gut epithelium

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