In this longitudinal study adjustment to kindergarten during the first year was examined as a function of individual temperament characteristics and other social and demographic factors in 127 girls and 133 boys. Adjustment was measured using a scale developed by Thompson. Temperament was assessed using the Parent Temperament Questionnaire. In all, 13.3% of the sample were judged by teachers to be experiencing some or considerable difficulty adjusting to kindergarten in term 1 and 5.7% were experiencing problems in term 3. Children of "difficult" temperament were perceived by teachers to be significantly more poorly adjusted than children of "easy" temperament in term 1 but not term 3. Results indicated that the temperament characteristic of low adaptability was most closely linked to poor kindergarten adjustment. However, temperament and various social and demographic factors only accounted for a small amount of variance. The findings were discussed in relation to the need to further understand the nature of factors contributing to kindergarten adjustment and to understanding why some children's adjustment problems persist throughout the first year.
- longitudinal study