The Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Following Weight Change in Adults with Diabetes: Results from ADVANCE

Alexandra K. Lee, Mark Woodward, Dan Wang, Toshiaki Ohkuma, Bethany Warren, A. Richey Sharrett, Bryan Williams, Michel Marre, Pavel Hamet, Stephen Harrap, John W. Mcevoy, John Chalmers, Elizabeth Selvin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

CONTEXT: Weight loss is strongly recommended for overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Unintentional weight loss is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, but few studies have examined its association with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 2-year weight change and subsequent risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in established type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation was an international, multisite 2×2 factorial trial of intensive glucose control and blood pressure control. We examined 5 categories of 2-year weight change: >10% loss, 4% to 10% loss, stable (±<4%), 4% to 10% gain, and >10% gain. We used Cox regression with follow-up time starting at 2 years, adjusting for intervention arm, demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and diabetes medication use from the 2-year visit. RESULTS: Among 10 081 participants with valid weight measurements, average age was 66 years. By the 2-year examination, 4.3% had >10% weight loss, 18.4% had 4% to 10% weight loss, and 5.3% had >10% weight gain. Over the following 3 years of the trial, >10% weight loss was strongly associated with major macrovascular events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.44), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.87-4.09), all-cause mortality (HR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.10-3.71), but not major microvascular events (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.61-1.36), compared with stable weight. There was no evidence of effect modification by baseline body mass index, age, or type of diabetes medication. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of substantial lifestyle changes, weight loss may be a warning sign of poor health meriting further workup in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-162
Number of pages11
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Volume105
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • weight loss
  • type 2 diabetes
  • lifestyle changes

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    Lee, A. K., Woodward, M., Wang, D., Ohkuma, T., Warren, B., Sharrett, A. R., Williams, B., Marre, M., Hamet, P., Harrap, S., Mcevoy, J. W., Chalmers, J., & Selvin, E. (2020). The Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Following Weight Change in Adults with Diabetes: Results from ADVANCE. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 105(1), 152-162. https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz045