Purpose of review: Alimentary mucositis is a severe dose limiting side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Mucin expression and secretion are associated with mucositis. This article aims to review current studies involving mucin and mucositis. Recent findings: Mucins have been shown to alter mucositis severity and key targets associated with mucositis. First, interventions increasing mucin content has been associated with reduce damage associated with mucositis. Second, mucins have also been shown to protect microbiota from radiation-induced damage. Finally, mucins have also been shown to be involved in lumen epithelial barrier interactions altering signalling for cell proliferation, motility, and the inhibition of apoptosis. Summary: The current studies suggest that mucin expression prior to and during mucositis may be very important in reducing the severity of mucositis and further research into the area is warranted.