Synthetic materials employed for enhancing, replacing, or restoring biological functionality may be compromised by the host immune responses that they evoke. Surface modification has attracted substantial attention as a tool to modulate the host response to synthetic materials; however, how surface nanotopography combined with chemistry affects immune effector cell responses is still poorly understood. To address this open question, a unique set of model surfaces with controlled surface nanotopography in the range of 16, 38, and 68 nm has been generated. Tailored outermost surface chemistry that was amine, carboxyl, or methyl group rich has been provided. The combinations of these properties yield 12 surface types that are subject to functional assays assessing key immune effector cells, namely, primary neutrophil and macrophage responses in vitro. The data demonstrate that surface nanotopography leads to enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-9 production from primary neutrophils, and a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from primary macrophages. Together, these results are the first to directly compare the immunomodulatory effects of the cooperative interplay between surface nanotopography and chemistry.
- Surface chemistries
- Surface nanotopographies