The Role of the Gut Microbiome on Chronic Kidney Disease

B Sampaio-Maia, L Simões-Silva, M Pestana, R Pinto Araujo, I Soares-Silva

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to affect nearly 500 million people worldwide and cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of death in this population. However, therapeutic interventions targeting traditional CV risks are not effective at lowering the incidence of CV events or at delaying the progression of the disease in CKD patients. In recent years, disturbances of normal gut microbiome were recognized in the pathogenesis of diverse chronic diseases. Gut dysbiosis is being unraveled in CKD and pointed as a nontraditional risk factor for CV risk and CKD progression. The most often reported changes in gut microbiome in CKD are related to the lower levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae and to higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Although metagenomics brought us an amplified vision on the microbial world that inhabits the human host, it still lacks the sensitivity to characterize the microbiome up to species level, not revealing alterations that occur within specific genus. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art concerning gut dysbiosis in CKD and its role in pathophysiological mechanisms in CKD, particularly in relation with CV risk. Also, the strategies towards prevention and treatment of gut dysbiosis in CKD progression will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Applied Microbiology
EditorsSima Sariaslani, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Place of PublicationUnited States of America
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages30
ISBN (Print)9780128048177
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Applied Microbiology
ISSN (Print)0065-2164


  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Dysbiosis
  • Inflammation
  • Intestinal microbial translocation
  • Intestinal microorganisms
  • Microbiome
  • Microbiota
  • Renal failure


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