The Sleep Impact on Activity Diary (SIAD): A Novel Assessment of Daytime Functioning in Insomnia

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Daytime impairments feature in the diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder yet are rarely assessed comprehensively in clinical practice and tend to focus on mood and subjective assessment of cognitive competence. In order to gain more information about the engagement in daily activities we developed the Sleep Impact on Activity Diary (SIAD). This initial investigation included 22 insomnia patients (15 females, aged 49.9 years, SD = 17.6) and 19 normal sleeper controls (13 females, aged 30.9 years, SD = 8.9). For 14 consecutive evenings, participants rated how their prior night-time sleep impacted their participation in 12 common daytime activities (e.g., work, self-care, leisure). They also rated how much effort each activity required (Range: 0-4). Overall, insomnia patients participated in only one fewer activity type per day (M = 7.48, SD = 1.34) than controls (M = 8.39, SD = 1.43) (p = 0.041, d = 0.66). More noteworthy, they reported that sleep negatively affected their participation more than controls (M = 1.56, SD = 0.92 versus M = 0.23, SD = 0.35; p = < 0.001, d = 1.90), and that activities required more effort (M = 1.58, SD = 0.64 versus M = 0.81, SD = 0.76; p = 0.001, d = 1.10). This pilot study with the SIAD suggests that, compared to good sleepers, insomnia patients participate in somewhat fewer activities but that their activities require considerably more effort and are adversely affected by their sleep. The SIAD tool promises to provide a more comprehensive picture of the everyday impact of insomnia. It remains to be validated on a much larger sample in a clinical treatment study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number219
Number of pages11
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Assessment
  • Daytime functioning
  • Effort
  • Impairments
  • Insomnia
  • Task participation


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