The subsystems approach to genome annotation and its use in the project to annotate 1000 genomes

Ross Overbeek, Tadhg Begley, Ralph M. Butler, Jomuna V. Choudhuri, Han Yu Chuang, Matthew Cohoon, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Naryttza Diaz, Terry Disz, Robert Edwards, Michael Fonstein, Ed D. Frank, Svetlana Gerdes, Elizabeth M. Glass, Alexander Goesmann, Andrew Hanson, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Roy Jensen, Neema Jamshidi, Lutz KrauseMichael Kubal, Niels Larsen, Burkhard Linke, Alice C. McHardy, Folker Meyer, Heiko Neuweger, Gary Olsen, Robert Olson, Andrei Osterman, Vasiliy Portnoy, Gordon D. Pusch, Dmitry A. Rodionov, Christian Rückert, Jason Steiner, Rick Stevens, Ines Thiele, Olga Vassieva, Yuzhen Ye, Olga Zagnitko, Veronika Vonstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1397 Citations (Scopus)


The release of the 1000th complete microbial genome will occur in the next two to three years. In anticipation of this milestone, the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG) launched the Project to Annotate 1000 Genomes. The project is built around the principle that the key to improved accuracy in high-throughput annotation technology is to have experts annotate single subsystems over the complete collection of genomes, rather than having an annotation expert attempt to annotate all of the genes in a single genome. Using the subsystems approach, all of the genes implementing the subsystem are analyzed by an expert in that subsystem. An annotation environment was created where populated subsystems are curated and projected to new genomes. A portable notion of a populated subsystem was defined, and tools developed for exchanging and curating these objects. Tools were also developed to resolve conflicts between populated subsystems. The SEED is the first annotation environment that supports this model of annotation. Here, we describe the subsystem approach, and offer the first release of our growing library of populated subsystems. The initial release of data includes 180 177 distinct proteins with 2133 distinct functional roles. This data comes from 173 subsystems and 383 different organisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5691-5702
Number of pages12
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2005
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. You are not required to obtain permission to reuse this article.The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact


Dive into the research topics of 'The subsystems approach to genome annotation and its use in the project to annotate 1000 genomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this