The UGTome: The expanding diversity of UDP glycosyltransferases and its impact on small molecule metabolism

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily of enzymes is responsible for the metabolism and clearance of thousands of lipophilic chemicals including drugs, toxins and endogenous signaling molecules. They provide a protective interface between the organism and its chemical-rich environment, as well as controlling critical signaling pathways to maintain healthy tissue function. UGTs are associated with drug responses and interactions, as well as a wide range of diseases including cancer. The human genome contains 22 UGT genes; however as befitting their exceptionally diverse substrate ranges and biological activities, the output of these UGT genes is functionally diversified by multiple processes including alternative splicing, post-translational modification, homo- and hetero-oligomerization, and interactions with other proteins. All UGT genes are subject to extensive alternative splicing generating variant/truncated UGT proteins with altered functions including the capacity to dominantly modulate/inhibit cognate full-length forms. Heterotypic oligomerization of different UGTs can alter kinetic properties relative to monotypic complexes, and potentially produce novel substrate specificities. Moreover, the recently profiled interactions of UGTs with non-UGT proteins may facilitate coordination between different metabolic processes, as well as providing opportunities for UGTs to engage in novel ‘moonlighting’ functions. Herein we provide a detailed and comprehensive review of all known modes of UGT functional diversification and propose a UGTome model to describe the resulting expansion of metabolic capacity and its potential to modulate drug/xenobiotic responses and cell behaviours in normal and disease contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107414
Number of pages29
JournalPharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume204
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

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