Tongue acceleration in humans evoked with intramuscular electrical stimulation of genioglossus

Billy L. Luu, Lee D. Walsh, Patrick P. Hübner, Danny J. Eckert, Lynne E. Bilston, Simon C. Gandevia, Jane E. Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Genioglossus was stimulated intramuscularly to determine the effect of regional activation of the muscle on tongue movement in eight healthy adults. Stimulation at motor threshold was delivered with a needle electrode inserted to different depths in the anterior and posterior regions of genioglossus. The current amplitude that induced muscle contraction was ∼80% higher for anterior than posterior sites. Evoked tongue movements were determined from stimulus-triggered averages (150 pulses) of the outputs from an accelerometer fixed to the posterosuperior surface of the tongue. The median amplitude [95% confidence intervals] for the resultant acceleration was 0.0 m/s2 [0.0, 0.2] for anterior and 0.6 m/s2 [0.1, 2.8] for posterior sites. There was a positive relationship between acceleration amplitude and stimulation depth in the posterior of genioglossus (p < 0.001), but acceleration amplitude did not vary with stimulation depth in the anterior region (p = 0.83). This heterogeneity in acceleration responses between muscle regions may contribute to differences in collapsibility of the upper airway.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103786
Number of pages7
JournalRespiratory Physiology and Neurobiology
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Breathing
  • Movement
  • Ultrasonography
  • Upper airway


Dive into the research topics of 'Tongue acceleration in humans evoked with intramuscular electrical stimulation of genioglossus'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this