Trajectories, Transitions, and Trends in Frailty among Older Adults: A Review

Emiel O. Hoogendijk, Elsa Dent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Frailty is an age-related clinical state associated with deterioration across multiple physiological systems and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality later in life. To understand how frailty develops and what causes its progression, longitudinal data with repeated frailty measurements are required. This review summarizes evidence from longitudinal studies on frailty trajectories, transitions, and trends. We identified several consistent findings: frailty increases with aging and is a dynamic condition, and more recent generations of older adults have higher frailty levels. These findings have both clinical and public health relevance, including the provision of healthcare and aged care services in the coming years. Further studies are required, particularly those conducted in low- and middle-income countries and those investigating factors associated with changes in frailty. The latter may help develop better-targeted interventions to reverse or slow the progression of frailty.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-295
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Geriatric Medicine and Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Aging
  • Frail older adults
  • Frailty
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Trends


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