Bacterial pathogens undergo stress during host colonization and disease processes. These stresses result in changes in gene expression to compensate for potentially lethal environments developed in the host during disease. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonizes the swine epithelium and causes a pneumonia that predisposes the host to enhanced disease from other pathogens. How M. hyopneumoniae responds to changing environments in the respiratory tract during disease progression is not known. In fact, little is known concerning the capabilities of mycoplasmas to respond to changing growth environments. With limited genes, mycoplasmas are thought to possess only a few mechanisms for gene regulation. A microarray consisting of 632 of the 698 open reading frames of M. hyopneumoniae was constructed and used to study gene expression differences during a temperature shift from 37°C to 42°C, a temperature swing that might be encountered during disease. To enhance sensitivity, a unique hexamer primer set was employed for generating cDNA from only mRNA species. Our analysis identified 91 genes that had significant transcriptional differences in response to heat shock conditions (P < 0.01) with an estimated false-discovery rate of 4 percent. Thirty-three genes had a change threshold of 1.5-fold or greater. Many of the heat shock proteins previously characterized in other bacteria were identified as significant in this study as well. A proportion of the identified genes (54 of 91) currently have no assigned function.