Background The Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) differentiates MI from myocardial injury. We characterised the temporal course of cardiac and non-cardiac outcomes associated with MI, acute and chronic myocardial injury. Methods We included all patients presenting to public emergency departments in South Australia between June 2011–Sept 2019. Episodes of care (EOCs) were classified into 5 groups based on high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-cTnT) and diagnostic codes: 1) Acute MI [rise/fall in hs-cTnT and primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome], 2) Acute myocardial injury with coronary artery disease (CAD) [rise/fall in hs-cTnT and diagnosis of CAD], 3) Acute myocardial injury without CAD [rise/fall in hs-cTnT without diagnosis of CAD], 4) Chronic myocardial injury [elevated hs-cTnT without rise/fall], and 5) No myocardial injury. Multivariable flexible parametric models were used to characterize the temporal hazard of death, MI, heart failure (HF), and ventricular arrhythmia. Results 372,310 EOCs (218,878 individuals) were included: acute MI (19,052 [5.12%]), acute myocardial injury with CAD (6,928 [1.86%]), acute myocardial injury without CAD (32,231 [8.66%]), chronic myocardial injury (55,056 [14.79%]), and no myocardial injury (259,043 [69.58%]). We observed an early hazard of MI and HF after acute MI and acute myocardial injury with CAD. In contrast, subsequent MI risk was lower and more constant in patients with acute injury without CAD or chronic injury. All patterns of myocardial injury were associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality and ventricular arrhythmia. Conclusions Different patterns of myocardial injury were associated with divergent profiles of subsequent cardiac and non-cardiac risk. The therapeutic approach and modifiability of such excess risks require further research.
- Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction
- high-sensitivity troponin-T
- Myocardial Infarction
- Acute myocardial injury