Tubercle Geometric Configurations: Optimization and Alternatives

Richard Kelso, Nikan Rostamzadeh, Kristy Hansen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter describes efforts by researchers to optimize tubercle configurations and investigate alternative geometries. It begins with a discussion of the optimization of sinusoidal leading-edge tubercles on full-span (2D) foils, focusing mainly on the wavelength (λ) and amplitude (A) relative to the wing’s mean chord (c). This is followed by a description of several optimization efforts for finite wings and fan blades, focusing mainly on the arrangement of the tubercles. These include the use of computational algorithms to determine the optimum design. Lastly, the chapter describes several alternative tubercle designs, such as serrated and wavy designs, and alternative versions of tubercles such as dome-shaped protrusions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFlow Control Through Bioinspired Leading-Edge Tubercles
Subtitle of host publicationMorphology, Aerodynamics, Hydrodynamics and Applications
EditorsDaniel T. H. New, Bing Feng Ng
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-23792-9
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-23791-2
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Optimisation
  • Amplitude
  • wavelength
  • phase
  • alignment
  • Distribution
  • serrated
  • wavy
  • rippled


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