Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation of cells with established dengue virus type 2 infection induces cell death that is accompanied by a reduced ability of TNF-α to activate nuclear factor κb and reduced sphingosine kinase-1 activity

Satiya Wati, Stephen Rawlinson, Ruby Ivanov, Loretta Dorstyn, Michael Beard, David Jans, Stuart Pitson, Christopher Burrell, Peng Li, Jill Carr

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    35 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) has an antiviral role in some infections but in dengue virus (DENV) infection it is linked to severe pathology. We have previously shown that TNF-α stimulation cannot activate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) to the fullest extent in DENV-2-infected cells. Here, we investigate further responses of DENV-2-infected cells to TNF-α, focusing particularly on cell death and pro-survival signals. TNF-α stimulation of productively DENV-2- infected monocyte-derived macrophages or HEK-293 cells induced caspase-3-mediated cell death. While TNF-α induced comparable degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκB-α) and NF-κB activation in mock-infected and DENV-2-infected cells early in infection, later in infection and coinciding with TNF-α-induced cell death, TNF-α-stimulated IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation was reduced. This was associated with reduced levels of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) activity in DENV-2-infected cells; SphK1 being a known mediator of TNF-α-stimulated survival signals. Transfection experiments demonstrated inhibition of TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB activation by expression of DENV-2 capsid (CA) but enhancement by DENV-2 NS5 protein. DENV-2 CA alone, however, did not induce TNF-α-stimulated cell death or inhibit SphK1 activity. Thus, productively DENV-2-infected cells have compromised TNF-α-stimulated survival pathways and show enhanced susceptibility to TNF-α-stimulated cell death, suggesting a role for TNF-α in the killing of healthy productively DENV-2-infected cells. Additionally, the altered ability of TNF-α to activate NF-κB as infection progresses is reflected by the opposing actions of DENV-2 CA and NS5 proteins on TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB activation and could have important consequences for NF-κB-driven release of inflammatory cytokines.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)807-818
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of General Virology
    Volume92
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011

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