To determine the cellular distribution of Toxoplasma antigens, RH strain tachyzoites were incubated with either one of three monoclonal antibodies (FMC 19, FMC 20, FMC 22) to T. gondii, or one of two controls (the murine myeloma protein MOPC 21, or phosphate buffered saline), and then incubated with peroxidase-labelled goat-antimouse IgG. Diaminobenzidine was added as substrate and electron microscopy was used to localize the reaction. All three antibodies bound to the entire periphery of the tachyzoite surface membrane. To ascertain the chemical composition of the antigens against which seven monoclonal antibodies (FMC 18, FMC 19, FMC 20, FMC 22, FMC 23, 2G11, 3E6) to T. gondii reacted, untreated, pronase-treated, or periodate-treated tachyzoites were incubated with the antibodies or MOPC 21, and then with |125I|-Protein A. The pronase-treated tachyzoites showed reduced binding for six of the antibodies, compared with the reduction in binding of MOPC 21 with the pronase-treated parasites. The periodate-treated tachyzoites had reduced binding for FMC 18 only. The results of these experiments confirm that most Toxoplasma surface antigens are protein in nature, and are consistent with the hypothesis that at least one cytoplasmic antigen is secreted onto the parasite cell surface.