PURPOSE: The introduction of COVID-19 therapies containing ritonavir has markedly expanded the scope of use for this medicine. As a strong cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor, the use of ritonavir is associated with a high drug interaction risk. There are currently no data to inform clinician regarding the likely magnitude and duration of interaction between ritonavir-containing COVID-19 therapies and small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) in patients with cancer.
METHODS: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was used to conduct virtual clinical trials with a parallel group study design in the presence and absence of ritonavir (100 mg twice daily for 5 days). The magnitude and time course of changes in KI exposure when coadministered with ritonavir was evaluated as the primary outcome.
RESULTS: Dosing of ritonavir resulted in a > 2-fold increase in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximal concentration for six of the 10 KIs. When the KI was coadministered with ritonavir, dose reductions to between 10% and 75% of the original dose were required to achieve an area under the plasma concentration-time curve within 1.25-fold of the value in the absence of ritonavir.
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study provides the first data to assist clinicians' understanding of the drug interaction risk associated with administering ritonavir-containing COVID-19 therapies to patients with cancer who are currently being treated with KIs. These data may support clinicians to make more informed dosing decisions for patients with cancer undergoing treatment with KIs who require treatment with ritonavir-containing COVID-19 antiviral therapies.
- Cancer patients
- Drug interactions
- Ritonavir-containing COVID-19 therapies
- Small-molecule kinase inhibitors