Understanding the Risks and Individual Difference Factors Associated with Engagement in Monetised (Play-to-Earn) Gaming

Amelia Delic, Paul Delfabbro, Daniel L. King

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
36 Downloads (Pure)


Play-to-earn (P2E) is a new form of monetised gaming based on blockchain and crypto-currency technology. Such games offer opportunities to combine gaming with speculative investment through the purchase of tradable in-game currencies and assets (non-fungible tokens). In this paper, we investigate the profile of people most likely to be attracted to this emerging form of gaming. A sample of 560 participants aged between 18-65 (M = 28.3, SD = 8.3) were recruited via Prolific to complete an online survey that included measures of gaming (Petry’s Internet Gaming Disorder Scale) and gaming risk (Problem Gambling Severity Index), measures of gaming motivation and impulsivity. Other existing engagement in gaming monetization as well as digital asset ownership was also assessed. P2E interest was associated with higher gambling risk scores, but not with internet gaming disorder. P2E gamers also scored higher on extrinsic motivation and monetised gaming was generally associated with higher impulsivity. The results suggest that P2E may be attractive to those with a pre-existing interest in financially risky activities. Policy implications include the increasing need to monitor the growth of digital asset technology and the increasing convergence of gambling, financial speculation and gaming and the potential for increasing financial harm in gaming populations.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jun 2023


  • Cryptocurrency
  • Gambling
  • Motivation
  • Personality
  • Play-to-earn gaming


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